4 questions from the 18th Chapter of the SBG

  1. What is Sannyaas?bhagavan-krishna
  2. Who is the doer?
  3. Why should the Gita be taught only to the austere?
  4. How to achieve ‘Sharanaagati’ before Bhagavan Krishna?

1. What is Sannyaas?

18:2
श्रीभगवानुवाच |
काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः |
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः || १८ २ ||
Sri Bhagavaan uvaacha:
kaamyaa naam karmanaam nyaasam
sannyaasam kavayoviduhu
sarvakarma phalatyaagam
praahustyaagam vichakshanaaha (SBG 18:2)

Shri Krishna said:
The sages understand Sannyaas to be the renunciation of action with desire; the wise declare the abandonment of the fruits of all actions as Tyaaga.

18:10
न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते |
त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः || १८ १० ||
na dweshtya kushalam karma
kushale naanu shajjate
tyaagee sattva samaavishto
medhaavee cchinna samshayaha (SBG 18:10)

The Tyaagi who is a man of renunciation, is pervaded by Sattva, is intelligent, has wisdom and conviction, never avoids works because they are unpleasant or are attached to them because they are pleasant.

————————————————
18:11
न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्यशेषतः |
यस्तु कर्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते || १८ ११ ||
na hi dehabhritaa shakyam
tyaktum karmaanya sheshataha
yastu karma phalatyaagi
sa tyaagee tyabhi dheeyate (SBG 18:11)

It is certainly not possible for an embodied being (Atman situated within a body) to abandon works in entirety. Therefore he who relinquishes the fruits of action is a Tyaagi or one who has truly renounced.

(Therefore Sannyaas is not necessarily abandoning home and all other duties; wearing ochre robes, sporting a beard, and wandering around talking philosophy)
————————————————
18:12
अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम् |
भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु संन्यासिनां क्वचित् || १८ १२ ||
anishta mishtam mishram cha
trividham karmanaha phalam
bhava tyatyaaginaam pretya
na tu sannyaa sinaam kwachit (SBG 18:12)

The threefold fruit of action—evil, good and mixed— is reaped after death by those who have not renounced, but those who have renounced, have none of them.
————————————————

2. Who is the doer?

18:13
पंचैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे |
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् || १८ १३ ||
panchaitaani mahaa baaho
kaara naani nibodha me
saankhye kritaante proktaani
siddhaye sarva karmanaam (SBG 18:13)

Learn from Me, O mighty-armed Arjuna, these five factors, as declared in the Saankhya system which is the philosophy of spiritual illumination and the ultimate purpose of all actions.

————————————————
18:14
अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम् |
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पंचमम् || १८ १४ ||
adhisht-haanam tathaa kartaa
karanam cha pruthag vidham
vividhaash cha prithak cheshtaa
daivam chaivaatra panchamam (SBG18:14)

The five factors are, the body which is the seat of action; the ego that claims to be the doer; the mind and the various senses; the different functions performed by the being; and the Super Consciousness within as the fifth factor.

18:15
शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः |
न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पंचैते तस्य हेतवः || १८ १५ ||
shareera vaangmano bhiryat
karma praarabhate naraha
nyaayyam vaa vipareetam
vaa panchaite tasya hetavaha (SBG 18:15)

Whatever action a man performs by his body, speech and mind, whether good or bad, are caused by these five factors.

————————————————
18:16
तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः |
पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः || १८ १६ ||
tatraivam sati kartaaram
aatmaanam kevalam tu yaha
pashya tya krita buddhitwaan
na sa pashyati durmatihi (SBG 18:16)

Such being the case, he who looks upon the embodied Self (The atman within the body) as the doer of actions, has a clouded mind and he lacks spiritual intelligence.
————————————————
3. Why should the Gita be taught only to the austere?

18:67
इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन |
न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति || १८ ६७ ||
idam te naatapaskaaya
naabhak taaya kadaachana
na chaashu shrooshave vaachyam
na cha maam yo’bhyasooyati (SBG 18:67)

This is never to be spoken by you to one who is devoid of austerities, to one who is not devoted, nor to one who does not render service, nor who does not desire to listen, nor to one who cavils at Me.

(This is because people without devotion and Dharma may misinterpret verses from the Bhagavad Gita to support their acts of crime. The following verse for example, can be misinterpreted by evil minded persons to suit their acts of violence )

18:17
यस्य नाहंकृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते |
हत्वाऽपि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते || १८ १७ ||
yasya naahan kruto bhaavo
buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatwaapi sa imaam llokaan
na hanti na nibadhyate (SBG 18:17)

He who is ever free from ego, attachments, bondages and selfishness, and does not think that he is the doer, even if he kills all these people, does not kill and is not bound by the action.

————————————————

4. How to achieve ‘sharanaagati’ before Bhagavan Krishna?

18:53
अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् |
विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते || १८ ५३ ||
ahankaaram balam darpam
kaamam krodham parigraham
vimuchya nirmamaha shaanto
brahma bhooyaaya kalpate (SBG 18:53)

Having abandoned egoism, violence, lust, anger and possessiveness, such a person becomes peaceful and is fit to attain Brahman or Super-Consciousness.
————————————————
18:54
ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति |
समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम् || १८ ५४ ||
brahma bhootaha prasannaatmaa
na shochati na kaangkshati
samah sarveshu bhooteshu
madbhaktim labhate paraam (SBG 18:54)

Becoming Brahman, serene in the Self, he neither grieves nor desires; the same to all beings, he attains supreme devotion unto Me.
————————————————
18:55
भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः |
ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनंतरम् || १८ ५५ ||
bhaktyaa maama bhijaanaati
yaavaanyash chaasmi tattwataha
tato maam tattwato jnaatwaa
vishate tadanantaram (SBG 18:55)

By devotion, he knows me in truth – what and who I am. Knowing me thus, he enters into Me at once.
————————————————
18:65
मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु |
मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे || १८ ६५ ||
manmanaa bhava madbhakto
madyaajee maam namaskuru
maame vaishyasi satyam te
pratijaane priyo’si me (SBG18:65)

Fix your mind on Me, be devoted to Me, sacrifice to Me, bow down to Me. You shall come to Me; I promise you, for you are dear to Me.
————————————————
18:66सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज |
अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः || १८ ६६ ||
sarva dharmaan parityajya
maamekam sharanam vraja
aham twaam sarvapaapebhyo
moksha yishyaami maa shuchaha (SBG 18:66)

Abandoning all your ideas of righteousness, take complete refuge in Me.
I will liberate you from all sins. Do not despair.
————————————————

18:70
अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः |
ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः || १८ ७० ||
adhyeshyate cha ya imam dharmyam
samvaada maavayoh
jnaana yajnena tenaaham
ishtaha syaamiti me matiih (SBG 18: 70)

I declare that he who studies this sacred dialogue of ours, worships Me through mental sacrifice which is the highest form of adoring Me.

————————————————
18:71
श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः |
सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम् || १८ ७१ ||
shraddhaavaan anasooyash cha
shrunu yaadapi yo naraha
so’pi muktaha shubhaamllokaan
praapnuyaat punya karmanaam (SBG18:71)

Even a person who hears this divine conversation with deep faith and free from malice, will attain liberation and the auspicious worlds of righteous people.
————————————————

18:78
यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः |
तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम || १८ ७८ ||
yatra yogeshwaraha krishno
yatra paartho dhanurdharaha
tatra shreer vijayo bhootir
dhruvaa neetir matir-mama (SBG 18:78)

Wherever there is Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, wherever there is Arjuna, the archer, you will find there prosperity, happiness, victory and firm policy; such is my conviction.
————————————————

sbg-3-09 sbg-3-20 sbg-3-21 sbg-3-25 sbg-3-27 sbg-3-30 sbg-3-31

Jai Shri Krishna

Advertisements